Archive for the ‘Post medieval history’ Category

DSC02845

The history of Terry’s in York dates back to 1767 when Robert Berry opened his shop in Bootham Bar. In 1823 he was joined by his nephew-in-law Joseph Terry. Two years later Robert died and his son George became a partner, renaming the company Terry and Berry. This partnership lasted only three years and George sold out to Joseph and the company was renamed Terry’s of York. Joseph retired in 1850 and the company passed to his sons. The iconic Terry’s factory was built in York in 1923 in the Art Deco style by Joseph and Noel Terry.

Terrys Factory York

Terrys Factory York

Terry's Factory
photo by Neil Turner (http://www.flickr.com/photos/neilt/)

It was here in 1931 that probably the most famous Terry’s product, the chocolate orange was launched.

Chocolate Orange
photo by John Keogh (http://www.flickr.com/photos/jvk/)

Production at the plant ceased in 2004 and the site is now under redevelopment as a residential, commercial and leisure complex retaining the iconic 1920’s buildings

There is a reconstruction of the original Terry’s chocolate shop in the York castle Museum

Terrys Chocolate Shop (York Castle Museum)

Terrys Chocolate Shop (York Castle Museum)

Here are some more reconstructed shops from York castle Museum

The Booksellers

The Booksellers

The coach office

The coach office

The country sports and a clothing store

The country sports and a clothing store

The taxidermist and the scientific instrument shop

The taxidermist and the scientific instrument shop

The Music seller and the riding equipment shop

The Music seller and the riding equipment shop

Terrys Chocolate Shop

Terrys Chocolate Shop

One of the major displays within York Castle Museum is a serious of reconstructed streets made up from shopfronts of Victorian and Georgian shops.

DSC02824a

DSC02827a

DSC02829a

DSC02830a

DSC02831a

On a calm, warm sunny evening earlier this week, I was fortunate to go on a guided walk of the Temple area of London.

The Temple is a secluded area to the west of the city which is known today for its connections with the legal profession. It comprises two of the four Inns of Court, the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple. To the north are situated the Royal Courts of Justice and a short walk east brings you to the Central Criminal Court.

DSCN9790-11

The area is first recorded in the 12th century when the Knights Templars moved here from a site in Holborn to the west and built the Temple Church. Within the site were two Templar Halls, Inner and Middle Hall. Upon the dissolution of the order in 1312 the land was granted to the Knights Hospitallers, although it took them over 100 years to fully establish their control over the site. However, the Hospitallers already had a compound and hall in Clerkenwell and so were not interested in moving to this site. They leased it to a group of lawyers and so the long association began between this area and the law. The lands passed to the crown following the dissolution of the monasteries and the lawyers became Crown Tenants (annual rent £10 per year for each Inn). They were granted a charter by James I and the lawyers gained absolute title to the land.

Today, Temple houses many chambers of barristers along with other legal organisations and is governed by a committee of leading members.

The symbols of the Inner (Pegasus) and Middle Temples (Agnus Dei)

The Temple area suffered badly during the air raids of WWII and much had to be rebuilt. The original Templars church was badly damaged and much restoration was needed to return it to an image of its original self.

One building that did survive and remains a jewel in the crown was the Elizabethan hall in Middle Temple which we were fortunate enough to be able to visit. Completed in 1572 it is a wonderful building with a fantastic hammer-beam roof, argued to be the finest still existing in London.

A great way to spend a summer evening.

HMS Warrior had a crew of 705 which comprised three groups – the engineering staff (98), the Royal Marines who responsible for the gunnery (115) and the Royal Navy crew. The conditions under which the crew lived were very similar to those of their counterparts 100 years earlier. They shared their mess deck with the main battery of guns and slept in hammocks strung from the superstructure of the ship

DSC00912

in the middle of the mess deck is the galley where all the food was prepared for the crew and the officers. The main meal of the day would be taken at noon and each seaman took it in turn to do a week’s duty as a mess Cook. This meant that he had to collect and prepare the days food for his mess and take it to the galley where it would be cooked by the seaman who worked there.

DSC00923

The galley also provided the food for the captain’s cabin, which was at the rear of the mess deck and the officers quarters and wardroom which were immediately below it.

Captains day room

Captains day room

Captains dining room

Captains dining room

DSC00894

HMS Warrior is an unique ship within the history of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1860, having been built as a response to recent developments in the French Navy. As the first ship built of iron, rather than using metal cladding she represented a major step forward in the evolution of fighting ships. When she was launched she attracted much more attention than any other preceding ship had ever had.
DSC00904

She was a hybrid between the first modern battleships and the classical ships of the line from the preceding Napoleonic period. She had the capability both sailing under her engines and under sail. Her unique features include retractable steam funnels, so that when she was under sail power the profile of the funnels did not interfere with the flow of the wind. Her gun layout and her facilities were still very reminiscent of ships of the Napoleonic era.
DSC00910

HMS Warrior remained in active naval service for 22 years during which time her guns never fired in anger. By the time he was retired from service ship design had already moved on and the turn-of-the-century would see the dispensing with the gun arrangements of the previous era and the introduction of deck based pivot guns as on modern battleships. Indeed even in 1860 Warrior has a very early prototype of these guns in the arrangements of her bow and stern chases, the direction of file which could be changed through 100° arc home side to side by mechanical means.

The trackway on the deck enabled quick change of direction of fire

The trackway on the deck enabled quick change of direction of fire

After active service, HMS Warrior used by the Navy in a number of different roles with in ports. Because of her construction, the hull lasted very well and eventually she was sold by the Navy for use as a floating jetty. She ended her working life as a floating oil jetty in Milford Haven in south-west Wales. In 1979, recognising the importance that the ship had played in the development of warships she was purchased, towed to Hartlepool and underwent restoration to her original 1860s condition. She is now on permanent display at the Portsmouth historic dockyard not far from that other great Royal Naval vessel HMS Victory.

DSC00895

DSCN9204-2

The Lesnes Mulberry tree is believed to be descended from a tree planted at Lesnes in the early 17th century by James I who was trying to establish a British silk industry. Unfortunately, the project failed because the trees sold to the King were Black Mulberry and silkworms feed on White Mulberry.

Whether this was a genuine mistake or whether the King was scammed, we will never know

 

Eltham Palace is approached from the town centre across a bridge which spans the moat and leads you into the inner garden which runs alongside the northern wing into the area which would have formed the courtyard of the Medieval Palace.

 

The gardens which incorporate the remains of the medieval palace along with the house are a great place to walk in the summer and are a great place for butterflies and dragonflies. They also give some great views of the House.

At one point in the garden, there is a great vista looking north towards central London.

DSCN7821-11

 

John Donne, a poet, writer and cleric, was born in London in January 1572 as the middle of 6 children into a Roman Catholic family, at a time when the practice of the Roman rite was outlawed in England. At 11 he attended Hart Hall (now Hertford College) in Oxford and at 14 entered Cambridge University. He completed his studies but did not graduate as he was unwilling to take the oath of supremacy. Following Cambridge, he entered the Inns of court in London. In 1593 his brother Henry was arrested for hiding a Roman Catholic priest and whilst in prison contracted bubonic plague and died. His death seems to have had a profound effect on John regarding his Roman Catholic beliefs. In 1597 John was appointed as secretary to Sir Thomas Egerton, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. During this time he met and fell in love with Anne More, Sir Thomas’ niece and in 1601 they wed in secret as both Sir Thomas and Anne’s father opposed the wedding. John found himself briefly in Fleet prison and although he was released after a short while, his career was in ruins. During this time, he scraped a living as a lawyer and a writer of poetry and anti-catholic pamphlets. Anne and John were reconciled with her family in 1609 and the following year he acquired a patron in Sir Robert Drury, who gave them a house in Drury Lane. In 1615, at the suggestion of James I, he was ordained priest in the Church of England and was appointed a Royal Chaplain. He finally received a degree from Cambridge University. However, in 1617 Anne died, having borne John 12 children in 16 years of marriage. In 1621 he was appointed Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral, a position he held until his death in 1631. He had become famous for his preaching and his poetry and hymn writing. He was buried in St Pual’s and a memorial was set up in the churchyard. This survived the Great Fire of 1666, unlike the Cathedral. but was moved inside once the new St Pauls was finished. In 2012 this bust of John Donne by Nigel Boonham was unveiled in the churchyard.

This article was originally posted in 2013. I am re-posting it as an introduction to some new blogs on the interior of the Palace.

The medieval moated manor house with extensive parkland was acquired by King Edward II in 1305. In 1470 King Edward IV added the Great Hall (which survives to this day). The last monarch who regularly used Eltham Palace was King Henry VIII. Afterwards, monarchs tended to prefer Greenwich Palace, probably because of easy access along the river from central London. In the mid-17th century Sir John Shaw, who by now owned the property, decided to build a new house, Eltham Lodge, about half a mile away from the current Palace site. The Palace fell into disuse and was used as a tenanted farm. The buildings fell into disrepair and it was only following a campaign in 1828, that the Great Hall was restored to a safe condition. It continued, however, to be used as a barn for the farm.
In the 1930s Stephen and Virginia Courthold had an ‘ultramodern’ house designed in the art deco style and built adjacent to the medieval Great Hall. They also had the gardens completely redesigned. They lived here until 1944 and at that time the building passed to the Army educational unit, who used it as a college until 1992. In 1994 English Heritage, having been given management of the property, started a four-year restoration programme to restore the building to the state it had been in the 1930s. The newly restored art deco house together with the Great Hall opened to the public in 1999.

DSC01096

DSC01100

DSC01099

DSC01094

For details about visiting please go to: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/eltham-palace-and-gardens/