Posts Tagged ‘St Paul’s Cathedral’

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Joshua Reynolds was born in July 1723 in Devon. He attended a local grammar school where he developed an interest in Classics and literature. However from an early age, he aspired to be an artist and at the age of 17 he was apprenticed to Thomas Hudson in London. He remained in London for 6 years before returning to Devon where he began to take commissions from local families for portraits.

"Joshua Reynolds Self Portrait" by Joshua Reynolds - http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/19009. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joshua_Reynolds_Self_Portrait.jpg#/media/File:Joshua_Reynolds_Self_Portrait.jpg

“Joshua Reynolds Self Portrait” by Joshua Reynolds – http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/19009. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons 

In 1749, he travelled to the Meditteranean to study classical architecture and sculpture, both of which would influence his painting. He returned to London in 1753, where he became an almost instant success and quickly established his reputation. Within 2 years he was employing assistants to help him with his numerous commissions.

"Cumberland-Reynolds" by Joshua Reynolds - ABCGallery. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cumberland-Reynolds.jpg#/media/File:Cumberland-Reynolds.jpg

“Cumberland-Reynolds” by Joshua Reynolds – ABCGallery. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons 

In 1756, he became the first president of the newly formed Royal Academy and was knighted. He continued to live in London nd enjoy success as the foremost portrait painter of his day. In 1781, he travelled to Flanders and Holland to study the works of the great portrait painter Rubens. But on his return to London, he suffered a stroke which left him partially paralysed. Nonetheless despite this and increasingly failing eyesight he continued to paint. He died in London in 1792 and was buried in St Paul’s Cathedral where this memorial is to be seen.

"Sir Joshua Reynolds - The Ladies Waldegrave - Google Art Project" by Joshua Reynolds - 2gFUfp9ERPG2xw at Google Cultural Institute, zoom level maximum. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_Joshua_Reynolds_-_The_Ladies_Waldegrave_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg#/media/File:Sir_Joshua_Reynolds_-_The_Ladies_Waldegrave_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

“Sir Joshua Reynolds – The Ladies Waldegrave – Google Art Project” by Joshua Reynolds – 2gFUfp9ERPG2xw at Google Cultural Institute, zoom level maximum. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – 

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Andrew Hay was born in 1762 and enlisted in the army as an ensign at the age of 17. He saw action in the American War of Independence and was promoted to lieutenant in 1781 and Captain in 1783. In 1795 he was promoted to Major, transferred to the 93rd foot and saw service in the West Indies. In 1798 he returned home to Scotland and became a Colonel in the fencibles, a local defence force. In 1803 he returned to the regular army as commander of  a reserve battalion, before being promoted in 1803 to command the 2nd Battalion Highland regiment. briefly stationed in Ireland he was sent to support Spain and Portugal in the Peninsular War. He saw action on the retreat to Corunna and was evacuated back to the UK. he was back in the Peninsular  in 1810 seeing action at the battle of Bussaco, where he was promoted to Major-General. He took part in the battles of Salamanca, Vittoria and the siege of San Sebastian. Due to injuries he assumed command of the 5th Division during the battles of Bidasoa and the Nive.

 

Following the battle, news reached Wellington’s army, camped outside Bayonne, of the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor.  Hay was the duty officer that day and the first to receive the news, which everyone took to mean the end of the war. Despite also receiving the news of the abdication the Governor of Bayonne, who was later condemned for his action by both sides, chose to continue with his plans to break the seige and the following day led a raid on the Allied forces. Andrew Hay was killed leading his men in defence of the allied positions. He was buried in the church of St Etienne and a memorial was erected to his memory in St Paul’s Cathedral by the British Government.

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Thomas Dundas was born in Scotland in 1750 and was educated in Edinburgh. He joined the army in 1766 and was swiftly promoted to the rank of major in the 65th foot. He left the army in 1771 and was elected MP for Orkney and Shetland, a seat which he held until 1780. With the outbreak of the American war of independance he was promoted to Lt-Colonel in the 80th foot and saw service at a number of actions including Williamsburg and the seige of Yorktown, where he was captured. He was repatriated in 1782 and promoted to Colonel. Dundas then put aside his army career and was re-elected MP for Orkney and Shetland, which he held until 1790. In 1793 he served as Lt Governor of Guernsey, but with the outbreak of the war of the French revolution he was appointed to command the 2nd brigade and was posted to the West Indies, where he took part in the second invasion of Martinique and the capture of Guadeloupe. In April 1794, he was appointed Governor of Guadeloupe. In June of the same year he contracted yellow fever and died. He was buried on the island. When the French regained possession of the island, the French governor ordered that his body be dug up and left for the birds. This caused a great deal of outrage in Britain and as a result a memorial to his memory was erected in St Paul’s Cathedral.

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Samuel Johnson was born in Lichfield in 1709. He attended Oxford Univ but was unable to complete his education as a lack of funds which forced him to seek employment. He worked as a teacher and began writing articles for magazines and books.

 

357px-Samuel_Johnson_by_Joshua_Reynolds (Wikimedia Commons)

Samuel Johnson by Joshua Reynolds (Wikimedia Commons)

In 1755 he published ‘ A dictionary of the English Language’ which was to remain the foremost dictionary of English for the next 150 years, This brought him popularity and success and he began to produce more works spanning the fields of history, biography, literature including commentary on Shakespeare’s plays and travelogues. He came to be regarded as one of the greatest writers of his era. He died in December 1784 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

This monument to Johnson can be found in St Paul’s Cathedral

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George Elliott was born in Scotland in 1717. He studied at the University of Leiden and then at the Military Academy in Paris, before serving for two years in the Prussian army. He returned to England and in 1741 was commissioned in the Horse Guards. He saw service in the war of Austrian succession and was wounded at the Battle of Deffingen.

Joshua Reynolds [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Joshua Reynolds [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

In 1756 he was appointed ADC to King George the second and served in this post until the outbreak of the seven years war in 1759, when he was appointed to command of the First Light Horse. He took part in the battles of Minden and Emsdorf. In 1762 he took part in the capture of Havana during the British expedition to Cuba. Four years later he was promoted to Lt. General and in 1777 was appointed Governor of Gibraltar.

"The Siege and Relief of Gibraltar (2)" by John Singleton Copley - http://underground-gibraltar.com/#/cave-photos/4568933843. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Siege_and_Relief_of_Gibraltar_(2).jpg#/media/File:The_Siege_and_Relief_of_Gibraltar_(2).jpg

“The Siege and Relief of Gibraltar ” by John Singleton Copley Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

In July 1779 Gibraltar was besieged by a combined French – Spanish force. It was to hold out for over four years until the siege was raised. In 1787, Elliott returned to England where he was made a Knight of the Bath and created Lord Heathfield. It was his plan to return to Gibraltar by travelling through Europe, but in the Aachen area of Germany he suffered a stroke and it was decided to suspend his return to the colony. He died in 1790, still residing in the Aachen area.

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He was buried first at the house in Aachen, then at the family estate in Heathfield, Sussex and finally at the church in Devon associated with his wife’s family.

This memorial to Elliott can be found in St Paul’s Cathedral.

 

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Memorial to Admiral Lord Collingwood in St Paul’s Cathedral

Cuthbert Collingwood was born in Newcastle in 1748 and joined the Navy at the age of 12. His first experience of military action was surprisingly on land as in June 1775 he served at the Battle of Bunker Hill near Boston Massachusetts as part of a naval contingent. In recognition he was promoted to lieutenant that same day. From the North American station he transferred to the West Indies and it was here that he first met Horatio Nelson – the two were to become firm and close friends. In 1779, Collingwood served on HMS Hinchinbroke as first lieutenant under Capt Nelson and succeeded him as captain, when Nelson was transferred to a larger ship. He subsequently commanded HMS Pelican, which was lost in a hurricane, and the 64 gun ship of the line HMS Sampson. In 1786 he was paid off and put on half pay and he returned to England.

With the resumption of war in 1793, Collingwood was recalled to naval service and fought at the Battle known as ‘the glorious first of June’ as Flag Captain to Admiral Bowyer on HMS Barfleur. The Admiral was seriously injured during the battle and his command past to Collingwood. After the battle Collingwood was transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet and took part in the blockade of Toulon. He was present at the battle of Cape St Vincent where again he fought alongside his friend Nelson. He was made Rear Admiral in 1799 and Vice Admiral in 1804 and served in both the Mediterranean and Channel fleets.

Cuthbert Colingwood By Henry Howard (died 1847) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Cuthbert Colingwood By Henry Howard (died 1847) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

In 1805 he was second-in-command to Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar and his ship HMS Royal Sovereign was the first British ship to see action in the battle. It was badly damaged and eventually had to be taken in tow. On learning that Nelson had been killed, Collingwood transferred to HMS Euralyus and assumed command of the fleet. He was subsequently appointed Commander of the Mediterranean Fleet replacing Nelson, charged with protecting British interests in the Mediterranean and blockading French and Spanish ports.

In 1810 he was granted permission to resign his commission on the grounds of health and return to the UK. However he died at sea on 17 March whilst still on his way home from Menorca. His body lay in state at Greenwich before being buried in St Paul’s Cathedral close to his long-time friend and colleague Horatio Nelson.

JMW Turner - St Paul's Cathedral

JMW Turner – St Paul’s Cathedral

Joseph Mallord William Turner in Covent Garden, London in 1775, where his father was a barber. in 1785, his mother was admitted to hospital and the 10-year-old Turner was sent to live with his uncle in Brentford by the River Thames. It is believed that it is here that he may have begun to paint. The following year he moved to stay in Margate and began to produce paintings which was exhibited in his father’s shop window and sold for a small amount. In 1789 he was admitted to the Royal Academy of arts school and a year later entered the Academy.his work became more well known and she gained a number of important patrons who continue to support him throughout his life.

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Turner continued to live with his father,who worked as his studio assistant, until the latter’s death in 1829. This  had a profound depressive effect on Turner. He eventually moved to Chelsea, where he lived with a widow, Sophia Booth, until his death in 1851. He was buried in St Paul’s Cathedral next to Sir Joshua Reynolds, another famous artist, who had been the chairman of the Royal Academy board which had admitted Turner to the Academy in 1789.

The_Fighting_Temeraire,_JMW_Turner,_National_Gallery -J. M. W. Turner [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

The_Fighting_Temeraire,_JMW_Turner,_National_Gallery -J. M. W. Turner [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Corfe_Castle_by_JMW_Turner -J. M. W. Turner [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Corfe_Castle_by_JMW_Turner -J. M. W. Turner [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Turner will probably be best remember for his use of colour and interpretation of light,

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George Westcott was born in 1753, the son of a baker in Honiton Devon. He joined the Navy as a masters mate in 1768, but by 1773 had been accepted as a midshipman. He passed lieutenant in 1776 and fought at the battle of Ushant (1778) and the relief of Gibraltar (1781), He served on HMS Victory under the command of Admiral Kempenfelt at the second battle of Ushant and shortl;y afterwards was promoted Commander of HMS Fortune. He was appointed Captain of HMS London in 1790 and in 1793 was appointed Flag-Captain to Rear Admiral Caldwell on HMS Majestic.

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He was Killed by a musket ball at the Battle of the Nile  in August 1798 and buried at sea. He was a man who it could be truly said rose through the ranks from humble background to a senior navy position. After Admiral Nelson had visited Westcott’s Mother in Honiton , he commented

‘poor thing, except from the bounty of government and Lloyd’s, in very low circumstances. The brother is a tailor, but had they been chimney-sweepers it was my duty to show them respect.

Westcott had not received the Nile medal, so Nelson gave his own medal to Westcott’s mother.

2 memorials were erected to him, both by Thomas Banks. This one in St Paul’s Cathedral and another in Honiton Parish Church.

The_sinking_of_HMS_Captain by William Frederick Mitchell [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

The_sinking_of_HMS_Captain by William Frederick Mitchell [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

HMS Captain was a unique ship. Built in 1869 she was a masted turret ship with dual propulsion systems. Her design had been opposed by the Navy but she was built on the orders of Parliament.

HMS Captain in dock  [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

HMS Captain in dock
[Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

She was built at Birkenhead but a number of substantial mistakes were made during her construction. By the time she was finished she was 750 tons heavier than originally planned. This combined with other design and construction elements meant that her centre of gravity had risen 10 inches. This was to play a major part in her demise.

HMS_Captain by William Frederick Mitchell [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

HMS_Captain by William Frederick Mitchell [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

She was commisioned in April 1870 and following sea trials was allocated to the channel fleet. On the 6th September off Cape Finistere a storm blew up. The ship began to roll in the gale force winds and eventually she capsized. 480 seamen including the captain were lost and only 18 survived.

The inquiry into the ships loss found that she had sunk due to the design and construction of the ship.

‘Before the Captain was received from her contractors a grave departure from her original design had been committed whereby her draught of water was increased about two feet and her freeboard was diminished to a corresponding extent, and that her stability proved to be dangerously small, combined with an area of sail, under those circumstances, excessive. The Court deeply regret that if these facts were duly known and appreciated, they were not communicated to the officer in command of the ship, or that, if otherwise, the ship was allowed to be employed in the ordinary service of the Fleet before they had been ascertained by calculation and experience.’

Names of those lost on the HMS Captain 1870

Names of those lost on the HMS Captain 1870     St Paul’s Cathedral

 

The story of HMS Captain, St Paul's Cathedral

The story of HMS Captain, St Paul’s Cathedral

The Captain and Crew are remembered in two memorial plaques on the wall of St Paul’s Cathedral.

 

 

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Thomas Fanshaw Middleton was born in Derbyshire in 1769. he was educated at Christ’s hospital and Cambridge and was ordained priest in 1792. He worked in a number of parishes in the UK including St Pancras in London as well as spending time as a private tutor. In 1814 he was made bishop of Calcutta, the first to hold the post, and travelled to his new diocese, which in effect was most of India, that year. he set about setting up a free school and a school for orphans  which opened in 1815. In that same year he undertook a tour of his diocese which entailed a round journey of a round 5000 miles and he did not return to Calcutta until the following year. In 1820 he established a Mission College to train local people as missionaries and he continued to travel to parts of his large diocese. He died in Calcutta in 1822 after developing a fever.

This statue to the first Protestant bishop in India was erected by supporters of his work in the UK and can be found in St Paul’s Cathedral.