Posts Tagged ‘Newcastle’

The worship of the God Mithras, although originating in Persia, had come to the Roman Empire through the Greeks. It was popular amongst the Military and a number of Mithraic temples (Mithraeum) have been discovered on Miltary sites connected with Hadrian’s Wall.

 

Relief of Mithras killing the Bull from Mithraeum at Housesteads Fort

Relief of Mithras killing the Bull from Mithraeum at Housesteads Fort

Statue of Birth of Mithras from Mithraeum at Housesteads Fort

Statue of Birth of Mithras from Mithraeum at Housesteads Fort

Altar dedicated Mithras the Invincible by the Prefect of 1st cohort of Batavians (from near the mouth of the river Rhine) from Mithraeum at Carrawburgh

Altar dedicated to Mithras the Invincible by the Prefect of 1st cohort of Batavians (from near the mouth of the river Rhine) from Mithraeum at Carrawburgh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Altar dedicated to Mithras from Mithraeum at Carrawburgh. It was probably painted as some green paint was still present on it when found

Altar dedicated to Mithras from Mithraeum at Carrawburgh. It was probably painted as some green paint was still present on it when found

Altar dedicated Mithras by Aulus Cluentius Habitus, an Italian from Lanneum in the Apenines - from Mithraeum at Carrawburgh

Altar dedicated to Mithras by Aulus Cluentius Habitus, an Italian from Lanneum in the Apennines – from Mithraeum at Carrawburgh

For many centuries during the Roman occupation the area around Newcastle was the frontier between the Roman Empire and the wild lands that lay beyond. The collection of Roman artefacts at The Hancock Museum in Newcastle is drawn from local excavations and reflects the life and the variety of people who found their way to this the most northern part of the Empire.

Altar to the 'Genius of the Emperor' set up by 1st cohort of Vardulli (scouts) who came from Northern Spain

Altar to the ‘Genius of the Emperor’ set up by 1st cohort of Vardulli (scouts) who came from Northern Spain

Relief of a Syrian Archer

Relief of a Syrian Archer

Tombstone of Aurelia Aia, a Christian from Salonae in Croatia - the wife of a soldier

Tombstone of Aurelia Aia, a Christian from Salonae in Croatia – the wife of a soldier

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tombstone of the baby son of Aurelius Julianus, Tribune 1st Aelian Cohort (from Roumania) and 1st Thracian Cohort (from Bulgaria /Turekey)

Tombstone of the baby son of Aurelius Julianus, Tribune 1st Aelian Cohort (from Roumania) and 1st Thracian Cohort (from Bulgaria /Turkey)

Tombstone of Aureilia Aureliana. Late 3rd century AD

Tombstone of Aureilia Aureliana. Late 3rd century AD

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A pair of altars found near the bridge at Newcastle. They probably come from a harbour shrine as one is dedicated to the river god Neptune (Trident) and the other to the Sea god Oceanus (Anchor). They were set up by the 6th Legion, who played a major part in the building of Hadrian’s wall

For many centuries during the Roman occupation the area around Newcastle was the frontier between the Roman Empire and the wild lands that lay beyond. The collection of Roman artefacts at The Hancock Museum in Newcastle is drawn from local excavations and reflects the life and the variety of people who found their way to this the most northern part of the Empire.

Quern-stone for grinding corn into flour

Quern-stone for grinding corn into flour

Amphora originating in Southern Spain

Amphora originating from Southern Spain

Italian Red slip ware

Italian Red slip ware

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Altar dedicated to the godess Minerva

Altar dedicated to the goddess Minerva

Statue head from Temple at Benwell Fort

Statue head from Temple at Benwell Fort

Roman coffin found in Newcastle

Roman coffin found in Newcastle

Roman coffin found in Newcastle

Roman coffin found in Newcastle

 

A trip out of London for today’s post: The Renwick memorial (also known as ‘The Response’) is to be found in central Newcastle, where it stands in the grounds of St Thomas’ church at Barras Bridge.20150504_101210a

The Renwick Memorial is dedicated to all those who answered the call to serve in the armed forces in World War 1. Its scenes depict the soldiers leaving their loved ones to go off to war.  The memorial was commissioned by Sir George and Lady Renwick and given to the city in 1923 to commemorate three events: the raising of the Commercial Battalion of the Northumberland Fusiliers; the return of the five Renwick sons from the war; and Sir George Renwick’s attainment of 50 years of commercial life on Newcastle Quayside it was unveiled by the Prince of Wales as part of a visit that he made to the city in July 1923.

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The reverse of the memorial depicting a Northumberland Fusilier of 1674 and of 1918 and St George

The reverse of the memorial depicting a Northumberland Fusilier of 1674 and of 1918 and St George

Central building complex at Segedunum Fort

Central building complex at Segedunum Fort

Within the site at Segedunum Fort there is also a reconstruction of a Roman bath-house. It comprises 5 rooms:

The Changing room – where the bathers would change their clothes, relax and play games either before or after taking a bath

The Changing room

The Changing room

The Cold room (Frigidarium)-  a cold plunge pool

The cold bath

The cold bath

The Hot room (Caldarium) – here the heat was moistened from a water fountain to aid with sweating and cleaning

The Tepidarium

The Caldarium

The Warm room (Tepidarium) – with a temperature between the Frigidarium and the Caldarium, it could be accessed from both as either a place to warm up or cool down before returning to the Changing room.

The Tepidarium

The Tepidarium

The four rooms above form the classical suite of rooms in a Roman bath, but there is also a fifth room at Segedunum:

The Hot Dry room (Iaconicum) – this was hotter than the Caldarium and provided a dry heat to encourage sweating.

 

A model of Segedunum fort c 200AD

A model of Segedunum fort c 200AD

 

In the museum at Segedunum, there are re-constructions of a barrack room and the shrine within the Principia where the military standards and trophies were kept.

Reconstruction of barrack room

Reconstruction of barrack room

The Shrine

The Shrine

Infantry standards

Infantry standards

Cavalry Draco standards

Cavalry Draco standards

For more information on the draco standards carried by Roman cavalry see these previous blog posts:

https://petesfavouritethings.wordpress.com/2013/03/05/roman-cavalry/

https://petesfavouritethings.wordpress.com/2014/04/13/the-draco/

 

A model of Segedunum fort c 200AD

A model of Segedunum fort c 200AD

The eastern end of Hadrian’s wall was at Segedunum Roman Fort on the Tyne estuary, east of Newcastle. The main wall, which at this point was 2.3m wide and 4,5m high met the fort on it’s eastern wall.

Model of Hadrian's wall at its eastern end

Model of Hadrian’s wall at its eastern end

A small branch wall then ran down from the south wall of the fort to the river’s edge and a monument situated in the river.

Remains of branch wall south of fort

Remains of branch wall south of fort

Artist's impression of monument at river end of branch wall

Artist’s impression of monument at river end of branch wall

This site had been chosen because it was on a bend in the river and gave excellent visibility in all directions. Fortlets existed on the Northern side of the estuary between Segedunum and the estuary mouth, which was guarded by the fort of Arbeia (modern day South Shields) on the south bank.

The site of Segedunum Fort from the Tower Observatory

The site of Segedunum Fort from the Tower Observatory

Wallsend is now a suburb of Newcastle. The name dates from the 11th century and refers to the most eastern end of Hadrians Wall, which runs from The west coast at the Solway Firth to the Tyne estuary on the east coast. The wall was built during the reign of Hadrian (cAD 122) as a frontier line for the empire. It took about 6 years to build.

 

Bust of Emperor Hadrian

Bust of Emperor Hadrian

The Roman name for Wallsend was Segedunum a word composed from two British words meaning ‘strong place’ and ‘victory fort’. It is not known why the Romans used British words for the names of forts, but we can imagine that they were a message to the conquered people in a language they would understand, since few Celts would have spoken Latin.

Barrack block at Segedunum

Barrack block at Segedunum

Central building complex at Segedunum Fort

Central building complex at Segedunum Fort

A model of Segedunum fort c 200AD

A model of Segedunum fort c 200AD

The Fort at Segedunum was occupied by a mixed auxilliary force of cavalry and infantry. In AD 200 this comprised of 480 Infantry and 120 cavalry, although this may have varied over time. It was occupied for over 300 years.

Cavalry auxiliary c 200AD

Cavalry auxiliary c 200AD

Pottery found at Segedunum fort

Pottery found at Segedunum fort

Jar found at Segedunum fort

Jar found at Segedunum fort

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As you travel around Newcastle there are many reminders of the historic importance of the city and as in many of our modern cities they sit alongside the modern developments. Some such as the Baltic Mill have found new leases of life very different to their original function.

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Baltic Mill - now an arts centre

Baltic Mill – now an arts centre

All that remains of the Castle

All that remains of the Castle

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A bar on the riverside

A bar on the riverside

The Sage, Gateshead ( an arts venue) seen from Newcastle river front

The Sage, Gateshead ( an arts venue) seen from Newcastle river front

The  castle keep surrounded by roads and rail

The castle keep surrounded by roads and rail

Some of my favourite fossils from the exhibition

Pterosaur

Cast of pterosaur

Cast of pterosaur

Pterosaur

Pterosaur

Model of pterosaur

Model of pterosaur

Pygopterus

Pygopterus - a preditory fish

Pygopterus – a preditory fish

Icthyosaur

icthyosaur paddle

icthyosaur paddle

icthyosaur paddle

icthyosaur paddle

Icthyosaur

Icthyosaur